[Wiki]Semantic role labeling

Named-entity recognition (NER) (also known as entity identification and entity extraction) is a subtask of information extraction that seeks to locate and classify atomic elements in text into predefined categories such as the names of persons, organizations, locations, expressions of times, quantities, monetary values, percentages, etc.
Most research on NER systems has been structured as taking an unannotated block of text, such as this one:
Jim bought 300 shares of Acme Corp. in 2006.
And producing an annotated block of text, such as this one:
Jimbought300shares ofAcme Corp. in 2006.
In this example, the annotations have been done using so-called ENAMEX tags that were developed for the Message Understanding Conference in the 1990s.
State-of-the-art NER systems for English produce near-human performance. For example, the best system entering MUC-7 scored 93.39% of F-measure while human annotators scored 97.60% and 96.95%.

Semantic role labeling, sometimes also called shallow semantic parsing, is a task in natural language processing consisting of the detection of the semantic arguments associated with the predicate or verb of a sentence and their classification into their specific roles. For example, given a sentence like “Mary sold the book to John”, the task would be to recognize the verb “to sell” as representing the predicate, “Mary” as representing the seller (agent), “the book” as representing the goods (theme), and “John” as representing the recipient. This is an important step towards making sense of the meaning of a sentence. A semantic representation of this sort is at a higher-level of abstraction than a syntax tree. For instance, the sentence “The book was sold by Mary to John” has a different syntactic form, but the same semantic roles.

[from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki]

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